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(i) The certifying party shall make such certifications available upon request at all reasonable hours to any duly authorized office or employee of the Food and Drug Administration or any other employee acting on behalf of the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Such certifications are regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as reports to the government and as guarantees or other undertakings within the meaning of section 301(h) of the act and subject the certifying party to the penalties for making any false report to the government under 18 U.S.C. 1001 and any false guarantee or undertaking under section 303(a) of the act. The defenses provided under section 303(c)(2) of the act shall be applicable to the certifications provided for in this section.
Sodium is a mineral found naturally in foods and also added to foods. Sodium plays an important role in maintaining normal fluid balance in the body. A low-sodium diet is important to follow in order to control your heart failure symptoms and prevent future heart problems.
Natural gas is odorless and colorless in its natural state. As a safety precaution, chemicals (odorants) are intentionally added when the gas is pumped into the local distribution network of pipelines to give it a distinctive, pungent smell, similar to rotten eggs. The odor signals a potential compressed natural gas (CNG) gas leak. Owners who notice this lingering odor coming from their vehicle should close the vehicle's manual shut-off valve, if it has one. They should then contact a qualified repair facility and request guidance on how to proceed. Note that a slight odor may be detected when the fueling nozzle is being connected or disconnected during the refueling process. This is normal and should quickly dissipate when fueling has been completed.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a cryogenic liquid stored at around -260°F. LNG is also odorless in its natural state and does not contain an odorant; therefore, an LNG leak is difficult to detect. This is why LNG vehicles and garages include electronic methane sensors to detect leaks. The cold natural gas vapors are heavier than air when they initially leak from a vehicle, so they may cling to the ground or pool, causing a potential fire hazard, as well as an asphyxiation hazard in enclosed spaces. For these reasons, gas detectors should be installed near the ground and ceiling in areas where the fuel itself or LNG vehicles are stored. LNG storage or vehicle maintenance facilities should be equipped with both floor- and ceiling-level ventilation to exhaust any potential leaks.
Many buried pipelines used in the transportation of petroleum products and natural gas are identified by above ground pipeline markers. Some pipelines transport other hazardous products such as chemicals, highly volatile liquids, and anhydrous ammonia, or carbon dioxide. Pipeline markers are located along certain pipeline routes that identify the approximate location of the pipeline.
The Natural Gas Act of 1938, as amended, requires any person who wishes to engage in the import and/or export of natural gas, (including liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas, compressed gas liquids, etc.) from and/or to a foreign country to first obtain an authorization from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Within DOE, the Office of Regulation, Analysis, and Engagement - Division of Natural Gas Regulation, is responsible for granting such authorizations.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane, C2H6) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state (at standard conditions for temperature and pressure).
The first large-scale liquefaction of natural gas in the U.S. was in 1918 when the U.S. government liquefied natural gas as a way to extract helium, which is a small component of some natural gas. This helium was intended for use in British dirigibles for World War I. The liquid natural gas (LNG) was not stored, but regasified and immediately put into the gas mains.
In the mid-1990s, LNG was a buyer's market. At the request of buyers, the SPAs began to adopt some flexibilities on volume and price. The buyers had more upward and downward flexibilities in TOP, and short-term SPAs less than 16 years came into effect. At the same time, alternative destinations for cargo and arbitrage were also allowed. By the turn of the 21st century, the market was again in favor of sellers. However, sellers have become more sophisticated and are now proposing sharing of arbitrage opportunities and moving away from S-curve pricing. There has been much discussion regarding the creation of an "OGEC" as a natural gas equivalent of OPEC. Russia and Qatar, countries with the largest and the third largest natural gas reserves in the world, have finally supported such move.
LNG must be kept cold to remain a liquid, independent of pressure. Despite efficient insulation, there will inevitably be some heat leakage into the LNG, resulting in vaporisation of the LNG. This boil-off gas acts to keep the LNG cold (see "Refrigeration" below). The boil-off gas is typically compressed and exported as natural gas, or it is reliquefied and returned to storage.
Other than these, there are also biphasic media, which consist of both solid and liquid media. And sometimes in the place of agar, egg yolk and serum are added to the media as a solidifying agent. Learn more on how to make agar plates here.
People who have difficulty swallowing thin liquids usually must drink thickened liquids. Drinking thickened liquids can help prevent choking and stop fluid from entering the lungs. Thickened liquids move slower than thin liquids giving your body more time to protect the airway. Some liquids are naturally thick. Other liquids can be made thick with powders or gels.
Microbial production of value-added products ranging from small molecules to complex proteins is becoming increasingly attractive and effective across industry and academia1,2,3,4. Recent advances in synthetic biology have further enabled microbial production to be modular and distributed across multiple organisms, thus creating synthetic consortia that can reduce metabolic loads and afford more robust cell populations5,6,7. Though commonly employed in bioreactor and cellular interaction studies, the limitations of liquid culture systems are especially poignant when attempting to control the dynamics of a multi-organism consortium. Specifically, repeated (and sometimes even single) batch liquid co-cultures typically fail over time without sophisticated genetic control systems or particular nutrient conditions that seek to minimize the competitive growth bias that often occurs when utilizing disparate microorganisms8,9,10,11.
The experiments outlined thus far illustrate the use of mono-culture based microbe-laden hydrogels. However, compartmentalizing a consortium through simple spatial separation within printed hydrogel constructs may provide a facile manner to control dynamics, especially for the endpoint balance within a co-culture. Natural microbial consortia rely upon spatial organization, as demonstrated by insect hindguts and biofilms34. In this regard, a synthetic microbial consortium that mimics these natural systems should provide both spatial organization as well as a protective environment for the microbes to thrive non-competitively. Moreover, achieving stable liquid co-cultures is challenging due to different competitive growth rates exhibited by many organisms, especially at different temperatures. This behavior is evident in a simple S. cerevisiae / E. coli co-culture expressing RFP and GFP, respectively, where one organism quickly dominates the other in a temperature-dependent manner (Supplementary Fig. 5). As an alternative, the printing of microbe-laden hydrogels that spatially compartmentalize each organism can minimize or remove this competition. For example, when an alternating striped pattern of RFP-producing S. cerevisiae and GFP-producing E. coli laden hydrogels was printed, confocal imaging and fluorescent macroscopy (i.e. macroscopic fluorescence imaging of the gel) showed that cell colony expansion was localized to the respective yeast and bacterial regions (Fig. 3a and Supplementary Fig. 6). Moreover, these gels did not impede cell growth when co-cultured, as the yeast samples achieved a maximum confluence of 93.5% and the bacterial samples achieved a maximum confluence of 88.6% in their respective hydrogel compartments relative to similar mono-culture gels (Supplementary Fig. 6a). Importantly, the physical segregation and hydrogel-based immobilization of the distinct microbial species offers advantages in controlling consortium population dynamics when compared to a mixed liquid culture system. The microbe-laden hydrogels can be deposited via deposition from a nozzle, which allows the final consortium composition to be specified over a broad range by simply changing the amount of each respective gel extruded, thus enabling a plug-and-play approach to consortium bioprocessing. Furthermore, the volume of gel and its spatial pattern can be digitally controlled using a direct-write extrusion printer. To test the efficacy of our hydrogel inks to spatially organize stable consortia, we explored two different types of consortia: (i) a commensal consortium for betaxanthins production and (ii) a parallel consortium for more efficient glucose and xylose utilization in fermentation.
Natural fertilizers can be expensive if applied in amounts adequate to supply nutrients for good plant growth, but have the added benefit of improving soil structure and plant vigor. When applying natural fertilizers, calculate as closely as possible the amounts of nutrients being supplied. Always err on the low side of application rates, then test the soil and augment as recommended on the soil test report. The nutrient content may need to be supplemented with other natural or synthetic materials to achieve a balanced ratio of nutrients. 2b1af7f3a8