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You can select the gender marker you would like printed on your U.S. passport. The gender you select does not need to match the gender on your supporting documentation such as a birth certificate, previous passport, or state ID. We no longer require medical documentation to change the gender marker on your U.S. passport.
At this time, you can select male (M), female (F), or unspecified or another gender identity (X) as your gender marker if you are applying for a U.S. passport book and selecting routine service. You can apply in-person at a passport acceptance facility or renew by mail.
You do not need to provide any documentation (medical or other) to change your gender, even if the gender you select on the application does not match the gender on your previous passport or other documents. Follow the steps listed on our Apply in Person page.
To replace a limited-validity passport with a full-validity passport in this situation, submit Form DS-5504. To use this form, you must apply within two years of your previous passport's issuance date. You do not have to pay fees unless you are requesting optional, expedited service. Please note that expedited service is not yet available if you are applying for a passport book with an X gender marker. If your limited-validity passport was issued more than two years ago, please use Form DS-11 and follow the steps on our Apply In Person page.
We are taking further steps toward demonstrating this commitment to better serve all U.S. citizens, regardless of gender identity. You can now self-select the gender you want printed on your U.S. passport. If you are applying for a U.S. passport book via routine service, the X gender marker is now available. We are also making technological updates to make the X gender marker available on passport cards, emergency passport books printed at embassies and consulates, expedited and emergency passports issued at passport agencies and centers, and Consular Reports of Birth Abroad (CRBAs).
No. The gender on your citizenship evidence and photo ID does not have to match the gender you select on your passport application. However, the photo you submit with your passport application must look similar to the photo on your ID. Learn more about Passport Photos before you apply.
At this time, we are only processing routine applications for U.S. passport books with an X gender marker. In late 2023, after we complete additional technological updates, X gender markers will be available on other documents we issue including passport cards, emergency passport books printed at embassies and consulates, expedited and emergency passports issued at passport agencies and centers, and Consular Reports of Birth Abroad (CRBAs).
At this time, you can select X as your gender marker only when applying for a routine passport book. In late 2023, after additional forms and IT systems are updated, X gender markers will be available on other documents we issue including passport cards, emergency passport books printed at our embassies and consulates, expedited and emergency passports issued at our passport agencies and centers, and Consular Reports of Birth Abroad (CRBAs).
Before late 2023, if a customer visits the public counter of a passport agency needing a passport for immediate travel, they will select a binary gender marker (M or F). Once they have completed their travel, they have up to one year from the date of issuance to apply for a free replacement routine passport with an X gender marker using Form DS-5504. Similarly, U.S. embassies and consulates will not be able to offer emergency passports with X gender markers until all technological updates are complete in late 2023. If an X gender marker passport holder loses their passport while traveling overseas, they will need to select a binary gender marker (M or F) to be issued an emergency passport. Once they have completed their travel, they have up to one year from the date of issuance to apply for a free replacement routine passport with an X gender marker using Form DS-5504.
Gender differences in causal attributions and emotions for imagined success and failure on examinations were investigated. Males made stronger ability attributions for success than females, whereas females emphasized the importance of studying and paying attention. Males more than females attributed failure to a lack of studying and low interest, but females were more likely than males to blame an F on a lack of ability. Females experienced stronger emotions than did males; they felt happier than males did after success but felt more like a failure than did males after imagining receiving an F on an examination. Some of the gender differences in causal attributions, especially for ability attributions, depended on the gender-type of the subject matter of the examinations. The implications of these findings are discussed.
The novel cohort of young GD patients increasingly presenting for help is poorly understood. It is overrepresented by adolescent females with recent-onset GD and with comorbid mental health and neurocognitive issues (Bewley, Clifford, McCartney, & Byng, 2019; de Graaf, Giovanardi, Zitz, & Carmichael, 2018; Kaltiala-Heino, Bergman, Työläjärvi, & Frisen, 2018; Littman, 2018; Zucker, 2019). The trajectory of GD among these young patients, including the rates of desistance and detransition, remains unknown. However, many of us, along with our colleagues, are seeing increasing numbers of detransitioners with adolescent-onset GD who regret not having received exploratory psychotherapy to help them understand their distress and the desire to transition before they underwent irreversible medical and surgical treatments. Equally concerning, a number report that when doubts about their own transgender status arose, their therapists continued to affirm them as transgender, attributing their doubts to internalized transphobia, and encouraging them to continue medical interventions, which, in turn, unnecessarily exacerbated the psychological and physical harms.
The impacts of infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics are not gender neutral. Instead, infectious diseases and gender-based violence (GBV) mutually reinforce each other. Women and girls in humanitarian settings are disproportionately impacted as crises exacerbate gender inequality, violence, and community transmission. A syndemic model of infectious disease and GBV draws attention to their critical linkage, enabling more effective approaches to address both infectious disease transmission and GBV prevalence.
Implementation of infectious disease control measures have been consistently absent of critical gender considerations in humanitarian settings. We drew learnings from Ebola, Zika, and COVID-19 to highlight how women and girls living in humanitarian settings have faced bi-directional syndemic vulnerabilities between GBV and infectious disease. Our findings indicate that Ebola, Zika, and COVID-19 exacerbated GBV risk and experience of GBV increased community transmission of these infectious diseases. Moreover, we identified a failure of existing policies to address this mutually deleterious linkage. Thus, we advocate for policymakers to ask three foundational questions: (i) What are the gendered bi-directional risk pathways between infectious disease and GBV?; (ii) How can we act on the gendered risk pathways?; and, (iii) Who should be involved in designing, implementing, and evaluating gender-sensitive policies?
Emergent literature explores syndemic relationships between gender-based violence (GBV) and COVID-19, wherein each exacerbates risk of the other [1,2,3]. Defined as violence perpetrated against someone based on their gender expression or identity, GBV includes intimate partner violence, deprivation, economic violence, sexual violence, child marriage, sexual abuse and exploitation, and reproductive coercion . GBV disproportionately threatens the safety and wellbeing of women/girls globally and is heightened in humanitarian settings [4,5,6].
Risk factors for GBV are magnified during infectious disease outbreaks [1, 3, 7]. For instance, epidemic or pandemic control policies that enforce lockdown measures can heighten socio-economic precarity and the feminization of poverty: known risk factors for transactional sex and sexual abuse and exploitation [8, 9]. In turn, GBV can influence community transmission of infectious disease if public health policies fail to consider how gender norms and gender inequality intersect with the chain(s) of transmission . For example, sexual violence may increase the risk of infectious disease exposure when pathogens are transmitted sexually .
Humanitarian settings perpetuate the clustering and interaction of infectious disease and GBV due to the ubiquity of violence, weakening of social support networks, exacerbation of patriarchal norms, and breakdown of health, economic, social, and political systems [1, 4]. An examination of syndemic relationships between recent outbreaks of infectious diseases and GBV in humanitarian settings reveals the structural factors that underpin vulnerability and magnify the population health burden. A syndemic lens is critical to developing policies that address both GBV and infectious disease in a manner that sustains progress on gender mainstreaming and transformation .
In this paper, we draw on syndemic relationships between GBV and Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19 in humanitarian settings to identify lessons learned that can inform gender-sensitive public health policies. We explore the bi-directional relationships between infectious diseases and GBV to illustrate how their dynamic interplay magnifies the population health burden. We then present a policy framework informed by syndemic theory, to better address the intersections between infectious disease and GBV.
Negative consequences of gender insensitive pandemic control policies with respect to GBV include increasing the proximity of survivors/victims to abusers, magnifying household socio-economic strain, reinforcing household gender roles, exacerbating inadequate access to sexual/reproductive health services, and limiting gender-specific data collection and analyses; all these consequences compound in humanitarian settings and are exacerbated for women and girls. 2b1af7f3a8