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It is the winter of 2018, the men and women of the UAE military are deployed to provide aid. At the Mocha Base, spirits are high as three Emirati soldiers anticipate an imminent return home. While on their final routine patrol, the three soldiers, Ali, Bilal and Hindasi are ambushed by heavily armed militants on their route, through a narrow canyon. Trapped, wounded, and out of communication range, the three soldiers realize the gravity of their situation. They are running out of options, munitions - and time. Back at the base, their commander receives word and realizes that the assault on the UAE army patrol was premeditated. A rescue mission is quickly put into action, but will air and land support reach the men in time, and will they survive?
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Back by popular request! This download contains the original campaign rules from 1st Edition Ambush Valley. These rules were written for 1st Ed. Force on Force, so may require some tinkering for use with 2nd Edition Ambush Valley and Force on Force.
This paper provides an empirical insight into the perception and use of ambush marketing on the People's Republic of China public television network CCTV5 (the official Olympic broadcaster), by examining the commercials used by various corporations during its coverage of the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. A five-point categorization is presented to distinguish between various methods of ambushing. Despite the efforts of the Beijing government to fight ambush marketing ahead of its Olympic Games in 2008, the results demonstrate that concerns about the practice of ambush marketing in China must be taken seriously. An analysis of 40 commercial spots was carried out, based on China's 2002 Olympic Symbol Protection Law, as well as a comparison of ambush marketing on Chinese CCTV5 with nine other nations. This paper concludes with some theoretical considerations concerning general protection of Olympic sponsors and reflects on particular cultural backgrounds in China that may relate to ambush marketing.
This paper will demonstrate that such concerns must be taken seriously. It will provide insights into the perception and use of ambush marketing on the Chinese public television network CCTV5 (the official Olympic broadcaster, for the Games in 2008 also) by examining the commercials used by various corporations during the coverage of the last Olympic Games, held in Athens in 2004. In total, 40 commercial spots are analysed by examining the type of messages and positioning of advertisements with regard to the Olympics (ie ambush marketing). A general categorization of Olympic ambush marketing for television is presented. Finally, we will describe two of these commercials as case studies.
Many studies focus on consumer reactions and attitudes towards ambush marketing. The results are not consistent, probably due to different samples gathered from different countries and events (Sandler and Shani, 1989, 1993; Stotlar, 1993; Graham, 1994; McDaniel and Kinney, 1996, 1998; IOC, 1997; Shani and Sandler, 1998; Lyberger and McCarthy, 2001; Preuss, 2004; Séguin et al., 2005). However, they are consistent on a few findings: (i) ambush marketing does create confusion among consumers; (ii) consumers are not aware of the issue; and (iii) consumers do not really care about the issue. The point regarding consumer confusion is of concern, as it implies some degree of clutter in the marketplace.
Besides the many incentives for ambush, there are also other reasons that oblige corporations to use ambush marketing as a strategy. The following are possible motives for Chinese corporations to engage in ambush marketing campaigns during the television coverage of the Athens Olympics in 2004 and with the exception of the first reason might also serve to instigate ambush marketing activities during the Beijing Olympics.
Category exclusivity: Only one company in a given product category can sponsor the Olympics. Hence, ambush marketing becomes a valuable strategy for those wishing to create association with the Olympics (Drengner and Sachse, 2005: 1).
Restricted advertising space: Beginning in Athens, the IOC and the OCOG have exclusive marketing rights at public advertising spaces over the entire host city. All advertising spaces within the city are reserved for Olympic sponsors during the Games. A similar tendency can be observed with TV rights holders, which offer first right of refusal on all advertising inventory. This reduces the possibility for non-sponsors to gain a share of consumer attention and may lead to ambush.
In addition, it is suggested that consumers have a lack of knowledge (Bruhn and Ahlers, 2003: 276) when it comes to ambush marketing. This is supported by a three-country study (Canada, USA, Germany) conducted during the 2004 Athens Olympics (McCarthy et al., 2005), proving that 59.8 per cent of Americans (36.2 per cent Canadians/54.5 per cent Germans) believe that the Olympic Rings can be used by all corporations, not just official sponsors. This lack of knowledge is perhaps higher in the PRC if one considers that its economy is still influenced by the former Soviet-style centrally planned economy. In particular, smaller corporations may not have the expertise to fully take advantage of a sponsorship and may not even be aware that sport sponsorship is a protected intellectual property in China. This is not exclusive to China. For example, the German NOC has sent written notice to approximately 425 companies believed to have engaged in ambush marketing activities since 2004. Most corporations stopped upon receipt of the first written notice and only one case proceeded to legal action.Footnote 1
However, for the purpose of financing the Olympic Movement it is essential to protect sponsors. China may have much to gain by incorporating its own scholarly traditions and historical experiences within the intellectual property system in sports rights, which it is now committed to develop. Hence, this study seeks to investigate the perception and use of ambush marketing on the Chinese public television network CCTV5 by examining commercials used by various corporations during the coverage of the 2004 Athens Olympics.
Despite the guarantees given by the Chinese government, doubts remain over whether the fight against ambush marketing ahead of and during the Beijing Olympic Games can be successful in China. The opportunities for ambush are manifold, as categorized by Crompton (2004: 2)
The empirical part of